Create CVA grid from seamount locations
gmt hotspotter [tables] -Erotfile -GCVAgrid -Iincrement -Rregion [ -Nupper_age ] [ -S ] [ -T ] [ -V[level] ] [ -bibinary ] [ -dinodata ] [ -eregexp ] [ -hheaders ] [ -iflags ] [ -oflags ] [ -:[i|o] ] [ --PAR=value ]
Note: No space is allowed between the option flag and the associated arguments.
hotspotter reads (longitude, latitude, amplitude, radius, age) records from tables [or standard input] and calculates flowlines using the specified stage or total reconstruction rotations. These flowlines are convolved with the shape of the seamount (using a Gaussian shape given amplitude and radius = 6 sigma) and added up to give a Cumulative Volcano Amplitude grid (CVA). See option -: on how to read (latitude,longitude,…) files.
- One or more ASCII (or binary, see -bi[ncols][type]) data table file(s) holding a number of data columns. If no tables are given then we read from standard input.
Rotations can be specified in one of three ways: (1): Give file with rotation parameters. This file must contain one record for each rotation; each record must be of the following format:
lon lat tstart [tstop] angle [ khat a b c d e f g df ]
where tstart and tstop are in Myr and lon lat angle are in degrees. tstart and tstop are the ages of the old and young ends of a stage. If tstop is not present in the record then a total reconstruction rotation is expected and tstop is implicitly set to 0 and should not be specified for any of the records in the file. If a covariance matrix C for the rotation is available it must be specified in a format using the nine optional terms listed in brackets. Here, C = (g/khat)*[ a b d; b c e; d e f ] which shows C made up of three row vectors. If the degrees of freedom (df) in fitting the rotation is 0 or not given it is set to 10000. Blank lines and records whose first column contains # will be ignored. You may append +i to the filename to indicate you wish to invert the rotations. (2): Give the filename composed of two plate IDs separated by a hyphen (e.g., PAC-MBL) and we will instead extract that rotation from the GPlates rotation database. We return an error if the rotation cannot be found. (3): Specify lon/lat/angle, i.e., the longitude, latitude, and opening angle (all in degrees and separated by /) for a single total reconstruction rotation.
- Specify name for output grid file.
- x_inc [and optionally y_inc] is the grid spacing. Optionally, append a suffix modifier. Geographical (degrees) coordinates: Append m to indicate arc minutes or s to indicate arc seconds. If one of the units e, f, k, M, n or u is appended instead, the increment is assumed to be given in meter, foot, km, Mile, nautical mile or US survey foot, respectively, and will be converted to the equivalent degrees longitude at the middle latitude of the region (the conversion depends on PROJ_ELLIPSOID). If y_inc is given but set to 0 it will be reset equal to x_inc; otherwise it will be converted to degrees latitude. All coordinates: If +e is appended then the corresponding max x (east) or y (north) may be slightly adjusted to fit exactly the given increment [by default the increment may be adjusted slightly to fit the given domain]. Finally, instead of giving an increment you may specify the number of nodes desired by appending +n to the supplied integer argument; the increment is then recalculated from the number of nodes and the domain. The resulting increment value depends on whether you have selected a gridline-registered or pixel-registered grid; see GMT File Formats for details. Note: if -Rgrdfile is used then the grid spacing (and registration) have already been initialized; use -I (and -r) to override the values.
- west, east, south, and north specify the region of interest, and you may specify them in decimal degrees or in [±]dd:mm[:ss.xxx][W|E|S|N] format Append +r if lower left and upper right map coordinates are given instead of w/e/s/n. The two shorthands -Rg and -Rd stand for global domain (0/360 and -180/+180 in longitude respectively, with -90/+90 in latitude). Set geographic regions by specifying ISO country codes from the Digital Chart of the World using -Rcode1,code2,…[+r|R[incs]] instead: Append one or more comma-separated countries using the 2-character ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 convention. To select a state of a country (if available), append .state, e.g, US.TX for Texas. To specify a whole continent, prepend = to any of the continent codes AF (Africa), AN (Antarctica), AS (Asia), EU (Europe), OC (Oceania), NA (North America), or SA (South America). Use +r to modify the bounding box coordinates from the polygon(s): Append inc, xinc/yinc, or winc/einc/sinc/ninc to adjust the region to be a multiple of these steps [no adjustment]. Alternatively, use +R to extend the region outward by adding these increments instead [no extension]. Alternatively for grid creation, give Rcodelon/lat/nx/ny, where code is a 2-character combination of L, C, R (for left, center, or right) and T, M, B for top, middle, or bottom. e.g., BL for lower left. This indicates which point on a rectangular region the lon/lat coordinate refers to, and the grid dimensions nx and ny with grid spacings via -I is used to create the corresponding region. Alternatively, specify the name of an existing grid file and the -R settings (and grid spacing and registration, if applicable) are copied from the grid. Appending +uunit expects projected (Cartesian) coordinates compatible with chosen -J and we inversely project to determine actual rectangular geographic region. For perspective view (-p), optionally append /zmin/zmax. In case of perspective view (-p), a z-range (zmin, zmax) can be appended to indicate the third dimension. This needs to be done only when using the -Jz option, not when using only the -p option. In the latter case a perspective view of the plane is plotted, with no third dimension.
- Modify the sampling interval along flowlines. Default [0.5] gives approximately 2 points within each grid box. Smaller factors gives higher resolutions at the expense of longer processing time.
- Set the upper age to assign seamounts whose crustal age is unknown (i.e., NaN) [no upper age].
- Normalize the resulting CVA grid to percentages of the CVA maximum.
- Truncate seamount ages exceeding the upper age set with -N [no truncation].
- -V[level] (more …)
- Select verbosity level [c].
- -bi[ncols][t] (more …)
- Select native binary format for primary input. [Default is 5 input columns].
- -dinodata (more …)
- Replace input columns that equal nodata with NaN.
- -e[~]”pattern” | -e[~]/regexp/[i] (more …)
- Only accept data records that match the given pattern.
- -V[level] (more …)
- Select verbosity level [c].
- -icols[+l][+sscale][+ooffset][,…][,t[word]] (more …)
- Select input columns and transformations (0 is first column, t is trailing text, append word to read one word only).
- -ocols[,…][t[word]] (more …)
- Select output columns (0 is first column; t is trailing text, append word to write one word only).
- -r[g|p] (more …)
- Set node registration [gridline].
- -:[i|o] (more …)
- Swap 1st and 2nd column on input and/or output.
- -^ or just -
- Print a short message about the syntax of the command, then exits (NOTE: on Windows just use -).
- -+ or just +
- Print an extensive usage (help) message, including the explanation of any module-specific option (but not the GMT common options), then exits.
- -? or no arguments
- Print a complete usage (help) message, including the explanation of all options, then exits.
- Temporarily override a GMT default setting; repeatable. See gmt.conf for parameters.
Geodetic versus Geocentric Coordinates¶
All spherical rotations are applied to geocentric coordinates. This means that incoming data points and grids are considered to represent geodetic coordinates and must first be converted to geocentric coordinates. Rotations are then applied, and the final reconstructed points are converted back to geodetic coordinates. This default behavior can be bypassed if the ellipsoid setting PROJ_ELLIPSOID is changed to Sphere.
To create a CVA image from the Pacific (x,y,z,r,t) data in the file seamounts.txt, using the DC85.txt Euler poles, run
gmt hotspotter seamounts.txt -EDC85.txt -GCVA.nc -R130/260/-66/60 -I10m -N145 -T -V
This file can then be plotted with grdimage.
GMT distributes the EarthByte rotation model Global_EarthByte_230-0Ma_GK07_AREPS.rot. To use an alternate rotation file, create an environmental parameters named GPLATES_ROTATIONS that points to an alternate rotation file.
Wessel, P., 1999, “Hotspotting” tools released, EOS Trans. AGU, 80 (29), p. 319.
Wessel, P., 2008, Hotspotting: Principles and properties of a plate tectonic Hough transform, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 9(Q08004): doi:10.1029/2008GC002058.