# x2sys_solve¶

Determine least-squares systematic correction from crossovers

## Synopsis¶

**gmt x2sys_solve** **-C***column* **-T***TAG* **-E****c**|**d**|**g**|**h**|**s**|**y**|**z**
[ *COE_list.txt* ]
[ **-V**[*level*] ]
[ **-W**[**+u**] ]
[ **-bi**binary ]
[ **-di**nodata[**+c***col*] ]
[ **-x**[[-]n] ]
[ **--PAR**=*value* ]

**Note:** No space is allowed between the option flag and the associated arguments.

## Description¶

**x2sys_solve** will use the supplied crossover information to solve
for systematic corrections that can then be applied per track to improve
data quality. Seven different systematic corrections can be solved for using a
least-squares approach. **Note**: Only one data column can be processed at
the time.

## Required Arguments¶

*COE_list.txt*Name of file with the required crossover columns as produced by x2sys_list. NOTE: If

**-bi**is used then the first two columns are expected to hold the integer track IDs; otherwise we expect the trailing text to hold the text string names of the two tracks. If no file is given we will read from standard input.

**-T***TAG*Specify the x2sys

*TAG*which identifies the attributes of this data type.

**-C***column*Specify which data column you want to process. Needed for proper formatting of the output correction table and must match the same option used in x2sys_list when preparing the input data.

**-E****c**|**d**|**g**|**h**|**s**|**y**|**z**The correction type you wish to model. Choose among the following functions f(

**p**) , where**p**are the*m*parameters per track that we will fit simultaneously using a least squares approach. Each type implies a certain input data record format:**c**will fit f(**p**) =*a*(a constant offset); records must contain track COE, ID1, ID2.**d**will fit f(**p**) =*a*+*b***d*(linear drift;*d*is distance along track; records must contain d1, d2, COE, ID1, ID2.**g**will fit f(**p**) =*a*+*b*sin(y)^2 (1980-1930 gravity correction); records must contain crossing latitude y, COE, ID1, ID2.**h**will fit f(**p**) =*a*+*b*cos(h) +*c*cos(2h) +*d*sin(h) +*e*sin(2h) (magnetic heading correction);*h*is heading at crossover; records must contain headings h1, h2, COE, ID1, ID2.**s**will fit f(**p**) =*a** z (a unit scale correction);*z*is the data value at the crossover; records must contain z1, z2, ID1, ID2.**t**will fit f(**p**) =*a*+*b** (*t - t0*) (linear drift;*t - t0*is the time along the track since start of track at*t0*); records must contain t1-t0, t2-t0, COE, D1, ID2.**z**will fit f(**p**) =*a*+*b** z (an offset plus a unit scale correction);*z*is the data value at the crossover; records must contain z1, z2, ID1, ID2.

## Optional Arguments¶

**-V**[*level*]Select verbosity level [

**w**]. (See full description) (See cookbook information).

**-W**[**+u**]Means that each input records has an extra column just before the ID columns with the composite weight for each crossover record. These are used to obtain a weighted least squares solution [no weights]. Append

**+u**to report unweighted mean/std [Default, report weighted stats].

**-bi***record*[**+b**|**l**] (more …)Select native binary format for primary table input.

**-di***nodata*[**+c***col*] (more …)Replace input columns that equal

*nodata*with NaN.

**-x**[[-]*n*] (more …)Limit number of cores used in multi-threaded algorithms (OpenMP required).

**-^**or just**-**Print a short message about the syntax of the command, then exit (

**Note**: on Windows just use**-**).**-+**or just**+**Print an extensive usage (help) message, including the explanation of any module-specific option (but not the GMT common options), then exit.

**-?**or no argumentsPrint a complete usage (help) message, including the explanation of all options, then exit.

**--PAR**=*value*Temporarily override a GMT default setting; repeatable. See gmt.conf for parameters.

## Notes¶

Most of the model corrections in **-E** involve a constant offset.
Because crossovers are differences between values, any absolute level
will cancel out and hence the constant offsets we obtain are relative
to an undetermined absolute level. To obtain a solvable solution we
add the constraint that the sum of all constant offsets equal zero.
If the tracks form clusters in which no tracks from one cluster cross
any track from another cluster then these are two independent data
sets and require they own constraint equation for their offsets. We
determine the number of clusters and automatically add the required
constraint equations. If you need a particular reference track to have
a particular offset (e.g., 0) then you can subtract the offset you
found from every track correction and add in the desired offset.

## Input Format¶

In moving to a more robust data record definition in GMT 6, all text
items are now placed after the numerical columns. For **x2sys_solve**, this
means that whereas the *ID1, ID2* track ids used to be expected in the first two
columns, they are now expected at the end. Thus, you cannot use this module with
crossover tables produced by an earlier GMT version without reformatting.

## Examples¶

To fit a simple bias offset to faa for all tracks under the MGD77 tag, try:

```
gmt x2sys_list COE_data.txt -V -TMGD77 -Cfaa -Fnc > faa_coe.txt
gmt x2sys_solve faa_coe.txt -V -TMGD77 -Cfaa -Ec > coe_table.txt
```

To fit a faa linear drift with time instead, try:

```
gmt x2sys_list COE_data.txt -V -TMGD77 -Cfaa -FnTc > faa_coe.txt
gmt x2sys_solve faa_coe.txt -V -TMGD77 -Cfaa -Et > coe_table.txt
```

To estimate heading corrections based on magnetic crossovers associated with the tag MGD77 from the file COE_data.txt, try:

```
gmt x2sys_list COE_data.txt -V -TMGD77 -Cmag -Fnhc > mag_coe.txt
gmt x2sys_solve mag_coe.txt -V -TMGD77 -Cmag -Eh > coe_table.txt
```

To estimate unit scale corrections based on bathymetry crossovers, try:

```
gmt x2sys_list COE_data.txt -V -TMGD77 -Cdepth -Fnz > depth_coe.txt
gmt x2sys_solve depth_coe.txt -V -TMGD77 -Cdepth -Es > coe_table.txt
```

## References¶

Wessel, P. (2010), Tools for analyzing intersecting tracks: the x2sys
package. *Computers and Geosciences*, **36**, 348-354, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220164039_Tools_for_analyzing_intersecting_tracks_The_x2sys_package.

Wessel, P. (1989), XOVER: A cross-over error detector for track data,
*Computers and Geosciences*, **15**(3), 333-346, https://doi.org/10.1016/0098-3004(89)90044-7.

## See Also¶

x2sys_binlist, x2sys_cross, x2sys_datalist, x2sys_get, x2sys_init, x2sys_list, x2sys_put, x2sys_report