Plot polarities on the lower hemisphere of the focal sphere
gmt polar [ table ] -Dlon/lat -Jparameters -Rregion -Msize[+mmag] -S<symbol><size> [ -B[p|s]parameters ] [ -Clon/lat[+ppen][+spointsize] ] [ -Efill ] [ -Ffill ] [ -Gfill ] [ -N ] [ -Qmode[args] ] [ -Tangle/form/justify/fontsize ] [ -U[stamp] ] [ -V[level] ] [ -Wpen ] [ -X[a|c|f|r][xshift[u]] ] [ -Y[a|c|f|r][yshift[u]] ] [ -dinodata ] [ -eregexp ] [ -hheaders ] [ -iflags ] [ -ttransp ] [ -:[i|o] ] [ --PAR=value ]
Note: No space is allowed between the option flag and the associated arguments.
Reads data values from files [or standard input] and will plot stations on focal mechanisms on a map.
Parameters are expected to be in the following columns:
- station_code, azimuth, take-off angle
- compression can be c,C,u,U,+
- rarefaction can be d,D,r,R,-
- not defined is anything else
- One or more ASCII (or binary, see -bi[ncols][type]) data table file(s) holding a number of data columns. If no tables are given then we read from standard input.
- -Jparameters (more …)
- Select map projection.
- west, east, south, and north specify the region of interest, and you may specify them in decimal degrees or in [±]dd:mm[:ss.xxx][W|E|S|N] format Append +r if lower left and upper right map coordinates are given instead of w/e/s/n. The two shorthands -Rg and -Rd stand for global domain (0/360 and -180/+180 in longitude respectively, with -90/+90 in latitude). Set geographic regions by specifying ISO country codes from the Digital Chart of the World using -Rcode1,code2,…[+r|R[incs]] instead: Append one or more comma-separated countries using the 2-character ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 convention. To select a state of a country (if available), append .state, e.g, US.TX for Texas. To specify a whole continent, prepend = to any of the continent codes AF (Africa), AN (Antarctica), AS (Asia), EU (Europe), OC (Oceania), NA (North America), or SA (South America). Use +r to modify the bounding box coordinates from the polygon(s): Append inc, xinc/yinc, or winc/einc/sinc/ninc to adjust the region to be a multiple of these steps [no adjustment]. Alternatively, use +R to extend the region outward by adding these increments instead [no extension]. Alternatively for grid creation, give Rcodelon/lat/nx/ny, where code is a 2-character combination of L, C, R (for left, center, or right) and T, M, B for top, middle, or bottom. e.g., BL for lower left. This indicates which point on a rectangular region the lon/lat coordinate refers to, and the grid dimensions nx and ny with grid spacings via -I is used to create the corresponding region. Alternatively, specify the name of an existing grid file and the -R settings (and grid spacing and registration, if applicable) are copied from the grid. Appending +uunit expects projected (Cartesian) coordinates compatible with chosen -J and we inversely project to determine actual rectangular geographic region. For perspective view (-p), optionally append /zmin/zmax. In case of perspective view (-p), a z-range (zmin, zmax) can be appended to indicate the third dimension. This needs to be done only when using the -Jz option, not when using only the -p option. In the latter case a perspective view of the plane is plotted, with no third dimension.
- Maps the bubble at given longitude and latitude point.
- Sets the size of the beach ball to plot polarities in. size is in default units (unless c, i, or p is appended). Optionally append +mmag to specify its magnitude, then beachball size is mag / 5.0 * size.
- Selects symbol_type and symbol size. Size is in default inits (unless c, i, or p is appended). Choose symbol type from st(a)r, (c)ircle, (d)iamond, (h)exagon, (i)nverted triangle, (p)oint, (s)quare, (t)riangle, (x)cross.
- -B[p|s]parameters (more …)
- Set map boundary frame and axes attributes.
- Offsets focal mechanisms to the latitude and longitude specified in the last two columns of the input file. Optionally set the pen and symbol point size.
- -Efill (more …)
- Selects filling of symbols for stations in extensive quadrants. Set the color [Default is 250]. If -Efill is the same as -Ffill, use -Qe to outline.
- -Ffill (more …)
- Sets background color of the beach ball. Default is no fill.
- -Gfill (more …)
- Selects filling of symbols for stations in compressional quadrants. Set the color [Default is black].
- Does not skip symbols that fall outside map border [Default plots points inside border only].
Sets one or more attributes; repeatable. The various combinations are
- Outline symbols in extensive quadrants using pen or the default pen (see -W).
- Outline the beach ball using pen or the default pen (see -W).
- Outline symbols in compressional quadrants using pen or the default pen (see -W).
- Use special format derived from HYPO71 output
- Plots S polarity azimuth. S polarity is in last column. Append +v to select a vector and append head size and any vector specifications. If +v is given without arguments then we default to +v0.3i+e+gblack [Default is a line segment]. Give half-size in default units (unless c, i, or p is appended). See Vector Attributes for specifying additional attributes.
- Set pen color to write station code. Default uses the default pen (see -W).
- To write station code; fontsize must be given in points [Default is 0.0/0/5/12].
- -U[label][+c][+jjust][+odx/dy] (more …)
- Draw GMT time stamp logo on plot.
- -V[level] (more …)
- Select verbosity level [c].
- -W[-|+][pen][attr] (more …)
- Set current pen attributes [Defaults: width = default, color = black, style = solid].
- -Y[a|c|f|r][yshift[u]] (more …)
- Shift plot origin.
- -dinodata (more …)
- Replace input columns that equal nodata with NaN.
- -e[~]”pattern” | -e[~]/regexp/[i] (more …)
- Only accept data records that match the given pattern.
- -icols[+l][+sscale][+ooffset][,…][,t[word]] (more …)
- Select input columns and transformations (0 is first column, t is trailing text, append word to read one word only).
- -t[transp] (more …)
- Set transparency level in percent.
- -:[i|o] (more …)
- Swap 1st and 2nd column on input and/or output.
- -^ or just -
- Print a short message about the syntax of the command, then exits (NOTE: on Windows just use -).
- -+ or just +
- Print an extensive usage (help) message, including the explanation of any module-specific option (but not the GMT common options), then exits.
- -? or no arguments
- Print a complete usage (help) message, including the explanation of all options, then exits.
- Temporarily override a GMT default setting; repeatable. See gmt.conf for parameters.
Several modifiers may be appended to vector-producing options for specifying the placement of vector heads, their shapes, and the justification of the vector. Below, left and right refers to the side of the vector line when viewed from the start point to the end point of a segment:
+aangle sets the angle of the vector head apex .
+b places a vector head at the beginning of the vector path [none]. Optionally, append t for a terminal line, c for a circle, a for arrow [Default], i for tail, A for plain open arrow, and I for plain open tail. Further append l|r to only draw the left or right half-sides of this head [both sides].
+e places a vector head at the end of the vector path [none]. Optionally, append t for a terminal line, c for a circle, a for arrow [Default], i for tail, A for plain open arrow, and I for plain open tail. Further append l|r to only draw the left or right half-sides of this head [both sides].
+g[fill*] sets the vector head fill [Default fill is used, which may be no fill]. Turn off vector head fill by not appending a fill.
+hshape sets the shape of the vector head (range -2/2). Default is controlled by MAP_VECTOR_SHAPE .
+l draws half-arrows, using only the left side of specified heads [both sides].
+m places a vector head at the mid-point the vector path [none]. Append f or r for forward or reverse direction of the vector [forward]. Optionally, append t for a terminal line, c for a circle, a for arrow [Default], i for tail, A for plain open arrow, and I for plain open tail. Further append l|r to only draw the left or right half-sides of this head [both sides]. Cannot be combined with +b or +e.
+nnorm scales down vector attributes (pen thickness, head size) with decreasing length, where vector plot lengths shorter than norm will have their attributes scaled by length/norm [arrow attributes remains invariant to length]. For Cartesian vectors specify a length in plot units, while for geovectors specify a length in km.
+o[plon/plat] specifies the oblique pole for the great or small circles. Only needed for great circles if +q is given. If no pole is appended then we default to the north pole.
+p[pen] sets the vector pen attributes. If no pen is appended then the head outline is not drawn. [Default pen is half the width of stem pen, and head outline is drawn]
+q means the input angle, length data instead represent the start and stop opening angles of the arc segment relative to the given point. See +o to specify a specific pole for the arc [north pole].
+r draws half-arrows, using only the right side of specified heads [both sides].
+t[b|e]trim[unit] will shift the beginning or end point (or both) along the vector segment by the given trim; append suitable unit (c, i, or p). If the modifiers b|e are not used then trim may be two values separated by a slash, which is used to specify different trims for the beginning and end. Positive trims will shorted the vector while negative trims will lengthen it [no trim].
In addition, all but circular vectors may take these modifiers:
+jjust determines how the input x,y point relates to the vector. Choose from beginning [default], end, or center.
+s means the input angle, length are instead the x, y coordinates of the vector end point.
Finally, Cartesian vectors may take these modifiers:
+zscale[unit] expects input dx,dy vector components and uses the scale to convert to polar coordinates with length in given unit.
Note: Vectors were completely redesigned for GMT5 which separated the vector head (a polygon) from the vector stem (a line). In GMT4, the entire vector was a polygon and it could only be a straight Cartesian vector. Yes, the old GMT4 vector shape remains accessible if you specify a vector (-Sv|V) using the GMT4 syntax, explained here: size, if present, will be interpreted as arrowwidth/headlength/headwidth [Default is 0.075c/0.3c/0.25c (or 0.03i/0.12i/0.1i)]. By default, arrow attributes remain invariant to the length of the arrow. To have the size of the vector scale down with decreasing size, append nnorm, where vectors shorter than norm will have their attributes scaled by length/norm. To center the vector on the balance point, use −Svb; to align point with the vector head, use −Svh; to align point with the vector tail, use −Svt [Default]. To give the head point’s coordinates instead of direction and length, use −Svs. Upper case B, H, T, S will draw a double-headed vector [Default is single head].
Note: Since many GMT plot examples are very short (i.e., one module call between the gmt begin and gmt end commands), we will often present them using the quick modern mode GMT Modern Mode One-line Commands syntax, which simplifies such short scripts.
gmt polar -R239/240/34/35.2 -JM8c -N -Sc0.4 -h1 -D39.5/34.5 -M5 -pdf test << END #stat azim ih pol 0481 11 147 c 6185 247 120 d 0485 288 114 + 0490 223 112 - 0487 212 109 . END
gmt polar -R239/240/34/35.2 -JM8c -N -Sc0.4 -h1 -D239.5/34.5 -M5 -pdf test <<END #Date Or. time stat azim ih 910223 1 22 0481 11 147 ipu0 910223 1 22 6185 247 120 ipd0 910223 1 22 0485 288 114 epu0 910223 1 22 0490 223 112 epd0 910223 1 22 0487 212 109 epu0 END
Bomford, G., Geodesy, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, 1980.
Aki, K. and P. Richards, Quantitative Seismology, Freeman, 1980.
F. A. Dahlen and Jeroen Tromp, Theoretical Global Seismology, Princeton, 1998, p.167. Definition of scalar moment.
Cliff Frohlich, Cliff’s Nodes Concerning Plotting Nodal Lines for P, Sh and Sv, Seismological Research Letters, Volume 67, Number 1, January-February, 1996
Thorne Lay, Terry C. Wallace, Modern Global Seismology, Academic Press, 1995, p.384.
W.H. Press, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, B.P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, Cambridge University press (routine jacobi)