# grdgravmag3d¶

Computes the gravity effect of one (or two) grids by the method of Okabe

## Synopsis¶

**gmt grdgravmag3d** *grdfile_top* [*grdfile_bot*] [ **-C***density* ]
[ **-E***thickness* ]
[ **-F***xy_file* ]
[ **-G***outgrid* ]
[ **-H***args* ]
[ **-I***increment* ]
[ **-L***z_obs* ]
[ **-Q**[**n***n_pad*]|[*pad_dist*]|[*region*] ]
[ **-R***region* ]
[ **-S***radius* ]
[ **-V**[*level*] ]
[ **-Z***level*[**b**|**t**] ]
[ **-f**flags ]
[ **-x***+a|n|-n* ]
[ **--PAR**=*value* ]

**Note:** No space is allowed between the option flag and the associated arguments.

## Description¶

**grdgravmag3d** will compute the gravity anomaly of a body described by
one or (optionally) two grids The output can either be along a given set
of xy locations or on a grid. This method is not particularly fast but
allows computing the anomaly of arbitrarily complex shapes.

## Required Arguments¶

*grdfile_top*[*grdfile_bot*]Grid file whose gravity effect is going to be computed. If two grids are provided then the gravity/magnetic effect of the volume between them is computed.

**-C***density*Sets body density in SI. This option is mutually exclusive with

**-H**

**-F***xy_file*Provide locations where the anomaly will be computed. Note this option is mutually exclusive with

**-G**.

**-G***outgrid*[=*ID*][**+d***divisor*][**+n***invalid*]
[**+o***offset*|**a**][**+s***scale*|**a**]
[:*driver*[*dataType*][**+c***options*]]

Give the name of the output grid file. Optionally, append =

IDfor writing a specific file format (See full description). The following modifiers are supported:

+d- Divide data values by givendivisor[Default is 1].

+n- Replace data values matchinginvalidwith a NaN.

+o- Offset data values by the givenoffset, or appendafor automatic range offset to preserve precision for integer grids [Default is 0].

+s- Scale data values by the givenscale, or appendafor automatic scaling to preserve precision for integer grids [Default is 1].Note: Any offset is added before any scaling.

+saalso sets+oa(unless overridden). To write specific formats via GDAL, use =gdand supplydriver(and optionallydataType) and/or one or more concatenated GDAL-cooptions using+c. See the “Writing grids and images” cookbook section for more details.

## Optional Arguments¶

**-E***thickness*To provide the layer thickness in m [Default = 500 m].

**-H***f_dec/f_dip/m_int/m_dec/m_dip***-H+m***magfile***-Hx**|**y**|**z**|**h**|**t****-H+i**|**g**|**r**|**f**|**n**Sets parameters for computation of magnetic anomaly (Can be used multiple times).

*f_dec/f_dip*-> geomagnetic declination/inclination*m_int/m_dec/m_dip*-> body magnetic intensity/declination/inclinationOR for a grid mode

**+m***magfile*, where*magfile*is the name of the magnetic intensity file.To compute a component, specify any of:

**x**|**X**|**e**|**E**to compute the E-W component.**y**|**Y**|**n**|**N**to compute the N-S component.**z**|**Z**to compute the Vertical component.**h**|**H**to compute the Horizontal component.**t**|**T**|**f**|**F**to compute the total field.If we want to compute the magnetic anomalies over a large region where the ambient magnetic field can no longer be assumed to be constant we can set variable inclinations and declinations via IGRF. Set any of

**-H+i**|**g**|**r**|**f**|**n**to do that

**-I***x_inc*[**+e**|**n**][/*y_inc*[**+e**|**n**]]Set the grid spacing as

*x_inc*[and optionally*y_inc*].**Geographical (degrees) coordinates**: Optionally, append an increment unit. Choose among:**m**to indicate arc minutes**s**to indicate arc seconds**e**(meter),**f**(foot),**k**(km),**M**(mile),**n**(nautical mile) or**u**(US survey foot), in which case the increment will be converted to the equivalent degrees longitude at the middle latitude of the region (the conversion depends on PROJ_ELLIPSOID). If*y_inc*is given but set to 0 it will be reset equal to*x_inc*; otherwise it will be converted to degrees latitude.

**All coordinates**: The following modifiers are supported:**+e**to slightly adjust the max*x*(*east*) or*y*(*north*) to fit exactly the given increment if needed [Default is to slightly adjust the increment to fit the given domain].**+n**to define the*number of nodes*rather than the increment, in which case the increment is recalculated from the number of nodes, the*registration*(see GMT File Formats), and the domain.**Note**: If**-R***grdfile*is used then the grid spacing and the registration have already been initialized; use**-I**and**-R**to override these values.

**-L***z_obs*Sets level of observation [Default = 0]. That is the height (z) at which anomalies are computed.

**-Q**[**n***n_pad*]|[*pad_dist*]|[*region*]- Extend the domain of computation with respect to output
**-R**region. **-Qn***n_pad*artificially extends the width of the outer rim of cells to have a fake width of*n_pad** dx[/dy].**-Q***pad_dist*extend the region by west-pad, east+pad, etc.**-Q***region*Same syntax as**-R**.

- Extend the domain of computation with respect to output

**-R***xmin*/*xmax*/*ymin*/*ymax*[**+r**][**+u***unit*]Specify the region of interest.

**Note**: This overrides the source grid region (Default: use same region as input) (See full description) (See cookbook information).

**-S***radius*Set search radius in km (valid only in the two grids mode OR when

**-E**) [Default = 30 km]. This option serves to speed up the computation by not computing the effect of prisms that are further away than*radius*from the current node.

**-V**[*level*]Select verbosity level [

**w**]. (See full description) (See cookbook information).

**-Z***level*[**b**|**t**]level of reference plane [Default = 0]. Use this option when the triangles describe a non-closed surface and the volume is defined from each triangle and this reference level. An example will be the water depth to compute a Bouguer anomaly. Use

**-Zb**or**Zt**to close the body at its bottom (for example, to compute the effect of a dome) or at its top (to compute the effect of a*spoon*).**-f**flagsGeographic grids (dimensions of longitude, latitude) will be converted to meters via a “Flat Earth” approximation using the current ellipsoid parameters.

**-x***+a|n|-n*Choose the number of processors used in multi-threading (Only available with multi-threading builds).

*+a*Use all available processors.*n*Use n processors (not more than max available off course).*-n*Use (all - n) processors.

**-^**or just**-**Print a short message about the syntax of the command, then exit (NOTE: on Windows just use

**-**).**-+**or just**+**Print an extensive usage (help) message, including the explanation of any module-specific option (but not the GMT common options), then exit.

**-?**or no argumentsPrint a complete usage (help) message, including the explanation of all options, then exit.

**--PAR**=*value*Temporarily override a GMT default setting; repeatable. See gmt.conf for parameters.

## Grid Distance Units¶

If the grid does not have meter as the horizontal unit, append **+u***unit* to the input file name to convert from the
specified unit to meter. If your grid is geographic, convert distances to meters by supplying **-f**flags instead.

## Examples¶

Suppose you want to compute the gravity effect of the phantom “Sandy Island” together with its not phantom seamount

gmt grdgravmag3d sandy_bat.grd -C1700 -Z-4300 -fg -I1m -Gsandy_okb.grd -V

To compute the vertical component due to a magnetization stored in *mag.grd* over a zone defined by
the surface *bat.grd*, using variable declination and inclination provided the the IGRF and using 4
processors, do:

gmt grdgravmag3d bat.grd -E10000 -Gcomp_Z.grd -Hz -H+n -H+mmag.grd -x4 -V -S50

## See Also¶

## Reference¶

Okabe, M., Analytical expressions for gravity anomalies due to
polyhedral bodies and translation into magnetic anomalies, *Geophysics*,
44, (1979), p 730-741.